Theileriosis kills about three million cattle in Africa, Mid-East and Asia each year. There are two main forms,
East Coast fever (ECF) and Tropical Theileriosis (TT). Both diseases are transmitted by the bite of ticks. Mortality
rates approach 100% among susceptible cattle, particularly of European dairy breeds. Two drugs, parvaquone and buparvaquone, are available to treat the disease. Cure rates are high if early and accurate diagnosis is made. Effective live vaccines have been developed but they are not widely available. So far, killed and molecular vaccines have been ineffective. Acaricidal dips and sprays are still the most widely used method to prevent theileriosis.